The district lies in the central plateau of Uganda comprising of flat topped –undulating hills with deeply incised valleys. Hills summits range between 1100m-1400 meters above sea level. These hills form part of the catchment for both seasonal and permanent wetlands that drain most low lying areas. The topography and geology provides abundant gravel and rocks resources used in construction. The underlying geology comprises mainly of rocks of Precambrian age that are highly weathered. The most dominant rocks being of the Buganda-Tooro system
The district relief is generally made of plateau and small undulating hills characterizing the Buganda surface and lying between 1,182 and 1,341 meters above sea level. Much of the low lying areas are drained by seasonal streams.
Climate, Rainfall, Temperature, Humidity and Winds
The District experiences a bi-modal rainfall pattern with first rains occurring between March and May and second rains coming between September and November with an average rainfall amount of 1320 mm though in many areas around the Lake zone it is between 1750mm and 2000mm.
Mpigi District has an average annual maximum temperatures ranging between 22.50C and 270C. Average relative humidity ranges between 80% and 95% especially in forest areas. The average monthly days of rainfall are 11. The minimum temperature in the district is 110 C while the maximum recorded is 27 0C.
The district has a variety of iron deports, stone debris, Murrum and clay soils
The District is characterized by evergreen vegetation with many seasonal wetlands and few areas with savanna type of vegetation.